Examination of the Economic Burden of Frailty in Patients With Adult Spinal Deformity Undergoing Surgical Intervention

Passias, P. G., Ahmad, W., Kummer, N., Lafage, R., Lafage, V., Kebaish, K., Daniels, A., Klineberg, E., Soroceanu, A., Gum, J., Line, B., Hart, R., Burton, D., Eastlack, R., Jain, A., Smith, J. S., Ames, C. P., Shaffrey, C., Schwab, F., Hostin, R., Bess, S.

BACKGROUND: With increasing interest in cost optimization, costs of adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery intersections with frailty merit investigation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate costs associated with ASD and frailty. METHODS: Patients with ASD (scoliosis ≥20°, sagittal vertical axis [SVA] ≥5 cm, pelvic tilt ≥ 25°, or thoracic kyphosis ≥ 60°) with baseline and 2-yr radiographic data were included. Patients were severely frail (SF), frail (F), or not frail (NF). Utility data were converted from Oswestry Disability Index to Short-Form Six-Dimension. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) used 3% rate for decline to life expectancy. Costs were calculated using PearlDiver. Loss of work costs were based on SRS-22rQ9 and US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Accounting for complications, length of stay, revisions, and death, cost per QALY at 2 yr and life expectancy were calculated. RESULTS: Five hundred ninety-two patients with ASD were included (59.8 ± 14.0 yr, 80% F, body mass index: 27.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2, Adult Spinal Deformity-Frailty Index: 3.3 ± 1.6, and Charlson Comorbidity Index: 1.8 ± 1.7). The average blood loss was 1569.3 mL, and the operative time was 376.6 min, with 63% undergoing osteotomy and 54% decompression. 69.3% had a posterior-only approach, 30% combined, and 0.7% anterior-only. 4.7% were SF, 22.3% F, and 73.0% NF. At baseline, 104 were unemployed losing $971.38 weekly. After 1 yr, 62 remained unemployed losing $50 508.64 yearly. With propensity score matching for baseline SVA, cost of ASD surgery at 2 yr for F/SF was greater than that for NF ($81 347 vs $69 722). Cost per QALY was higher for F/SF at 2 yr than that for NF ($436 473 vs $430 437). At life expectancy, cost per QALY differences became comparable ($58 965 vs $58 149). CONCLUSION: Despite greater initial cost, F and SF patients show greater improvement. Cost per QALY for NF and F patients becomes similar at life expectancy.

Topic(s): Economic Burden
Health Condition(s): Orthopedics
Year Published:
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